Daniel Defoe: A Journal of the Plague Year

Al of them chambermaids and lower ranking countesses his re election the following year seemed certain He promised the electorate new steam powered horse and carts a plumbing system that reduced pong by 34% a complete ban on orange jerkins and a promise to invent peroxide by 1669 A year later Borif was re elected Everyone loved his extravagant lying ways He was such a character He was such a cad a bounder a cuddly fluffy bugger upper such a British bumbler Two weeks into his second term as Mayor the Plague erupted across the city Borif promised a million vaccines He promised a hundred tubes of Savlon per household By the end of the year 70000 people had perished from the plague In 1666 Borif claimed a rousing victory at having seen off the virus single handedly with hardly no assistance from his recently sacked adviser Dominick Cummingf A few weeks later the Great Fire broke out and Borif promised 100000 water cannons to arrive within the hour By the end of the year 436 acres of London was destroyed At the next election Boris was re elected with a landslide wherever there was land or people left History teaches us nothing Daniel Defoe wrote this fictionalised account by an author nown only as HF of the 1664 bubonic plague outbreak in London otherwise nown as the Black Death He wrote it some 50 years after the events Defoe was fascinated by plagues and did a huge amount of research producing a work that was believed to be a true account for some decades after it was published I bought it several months ago and it seemed to be timely to read it now The parallels are chilling the Face of Things I say was much altered Sorrow and Sadness sat upon every face and tho some Part were not yet overwhelmed yet all looked deeply concerned and as we saw it apparently coming on so everyone looked on himself and his Family as in the utmost Dangerit was a most surprising thing to see those Streets which were so usually thronged now grown desolate and so few People to be seen in them that if I had been a Stranger and at a Loss for my Way I might sometimes have gone the Length of a whole Streetand see no Body to direct methe Power of shutting up people in their own Houses was granted by Act of Parliament entitled An Act for the charitable Relief and Ordering of Persons affected with the Plague confirmed an order of 1583 that those stricken by the plague be confined to their housesto every infected House there be appointed two Watchmen one for every Day the other for the Night with a special care that no Person go in or out of such infected Houses whereof they have the Charge upon pain of severe punishmentThat where several Inmates are in one and the same House and any Person in that House happens to be infected no other Person of Family of such House shall be suffered to remove him or themselves without a Certificate from the Examiners of Health of that Parish That all Plays Bear Baitings Gamesor such like Causes of Assemblies of People be utterly prohibitedDinners at Taverns Alehouses and other Places of common Entertainment be forbornThat no Vintner Innholder Cook Ordinary Keeper Seller of Strong Waters Ale House eeper shall henceforward during the Infection receive or entertain any person or personsto eat or drink in their houses or shopsmany Families foreseeing the Approach of the Distemper laid up Stores of Provisions sufficient for their whole Families and shut themselves up and that so entirely that they were neither seen or heard of till the Infection was uite ceased and then came abroad Sound and WellPeoplehave forbid their own Family to come near them in Hopes of their being preserved and have even died without seeing their nearest Relations lest they should be instrumental toinfect or endanger themall Trades being stopt Employment ceased the Labour and by that the Bread of the Poor were cut off tho by the Distribution of Charity their Misery that way was greatly abated Many indeed fled into the Countries they serv d for no better than the Messengers of Deathcarrying the Infection along with them spreading it very unhappily into the remotest Parts of the Kingdomotherswere silently infectedIt was very sad to reflect how such a Personhad been a walking Destroyer perhaps for a Week or a Fortnight before that how he had ruin d those that he would have hazarded his Life to save and had been breathing Death upon them even perhaps in his tender Kissing and Embracings of his own Childrenmany peoplewere as well to look on as other People and even Bachelor to the Rescue (Home to Dover, knew it not themselvesBut from the whole I found that the Nature of this Contagion was such that it was impossible to discover it at all or to prevent its spreading from one to another by any human Skilla vast Number of People lock d themselves up so as not to come abroad into any Company at all nor suffer any that had been abroad in promiscuous Company to come into their Houses or near them at least not so near them as to be within the Reach of their Breath or of any Smell from themIt must be acknowledg d that when People began to use these Cautions they were less exposed to Danger and the Infection did not break into such Houses so furiously as it did into others before and thousands of Families were preservedby that MeansWhen the numbers dying started to decrease people stopped being so cautious and traders flocked to London from the countryside This imprudent rash Conduct cost a great many their Lives who had with great Care and Caution shut themselves up andept retir d as it were from all Mankind and had by that meansbeen preserv d The Conseuence of this was that the Bills lists of fatalities encreas d againA dreadful Plague in London wasIn the year Sixty FiveWhich swept an Hundred Thousand SoulsAway yet I aliveHF author4 stars because it became uite repetitive at times but it is a fascinating account I skim read the last pages because of the worsening situation in our world For now I feel the need for pure fantasy rather than fictionalised realityKeep safe everyone The year is 1665 and the plague has come to London It has come like a thief in the night stealing into town one or two fatalities at a time and then growing to a level that is uncontrollable and unimaginable The account is fiction since Devoe was too young to have remembered most of the events he covers but it is so obviously based on the first hand memories of those who did survive and the records of the time that it reads like non fiction The voice of the narrator reinforces the feeling of reality by inserting from time to time his assertions that this is his own recollection not necessarily the only truth or full truth but the truth as he can tell it as it seemed to him at the timeWhat I found the most interesting about this account was the correlations I could draw to the attitudes and reactions to the disease as it pertains to our own situation with the COVID 19 pandemic If anything would make you feel better about the current situation it would be hearing the details of what people endured during this one We think social distancing and sheltering in place is difficult but imagine being locked into your house and having your children confined with you because one person in the household has the disease Instead of removing the sick person and caring for the well the sound were penned inside with the ill and in almost every house that experienced this scenario every person inside diedThere were looters sadly this has not changed who took advantage of the emptied houses and businesses that were unable to function What a sad commentary on mankind that these people would be willing to steal even at the risk of contracting this horrid disease The power of avarice was so strong in some that they would run any hazard to steal and to plunder and particularly in houses where all the families or inhabitants have been dead and carried out they would break in at all hazards and without regard to the danger of infection take even the clothes off the dead bodies and the bed clothes from others where they lay deadThere were charlatans who preyed upon the desire of people to get well or avoid getting sick There were happily also those who risked their own lives in caring for the sick in feeding those who fled in hopes of outrunning the plague in carrying away the dead bodies so that they did not rot in the houses and streets and endanger even of the population This Secrets At Maple Syrup Farm kind of courage we also see today I think it ought to be recorded to the honour of such men as well clergy as physicians surgeons apothecaries magistrates and officers of everyind as also all useful people who ventured their lives in discharge of their duty as most certainly all such as stayed did to the last degree and several of all these Whispers Of The Heart kinds did not only venture but lose their lives on that sad occasionPeople were asked to distance themselves from one another but many defied the warnings and mingled at will some had no choice but to go abroad to obtain necessities some had jobs nursing carrying off the dead supplying the houses that were locked down ministering to the people that prevented them from distancing Many fled the city into the country and as a result were either prohibited from passing through towns and died of want or inadvertently spread the disease to areas that might have otherwise escaped the blight More than a few paid with their lives I enjoyed reading most of this account There was a tendency toward repetition and there was no attempt to make the narrator anything other than an observer so there was no central figure on which to hang one s hopes or emotions It was a recounting of the most horrible things that could have and did happen during this tormenting event I confess to being brought to a gasp by theilling of all the animals dogs cats and ponies in an effort to stop the spread of the disease This without any understanding that a flea was most likely responsible for the disease in the beginning This was simply a measure I had not considered when imagining what had happened during the battle against the plague and one that took me off guard than all the human suffering which I was entirely braced for If you ever think there is something going on in this world that has never been experienced before it is good to turn to history and realize you are wrong Others have endured all this and It is good to be grateful for what has changed it is odd to realize how little has changed It is the story of your life but perhaps it is just the story of life In the crowded unhealthy unclean foul pest dominated filthy city of London the Black Plague breaks out in 1665 no surprise it had occurred before in fact just a few years previously but this escalates felling some say 100000 people who never rise again Daniel Defoe the inventor of the English language novel Robinson Crusoe 1719 yet because of his earlier employment was a journalist than a novelist writes a memoir of this catastrophe almost sixty years later The author was only five years old at the time but his. Ery private Hence it was that this rumour died off again and people began to forget it as a thing we were very little concerned in and that we hoped was not true; till the latter end of November or the beginning of December 1664 when two men said to be Frenchmen died of the plague in Long Acre or rather at the upper end of Drury Lane The family they were in endeavoured to conceal it as much as possible but as it had gotten some vent in the discourse of the neighbourhood the Secretaries of State got nowledge of it; and concerning themselves to inuire about it in order to be certain of the truth two physicians and a surgeon were ordered to go to the house and make inspection This they did; and finding evident tokens of the sickness upon both the bodies that were dead they gave their opinions publicly that they died of the plagu.

Daniel Defoe ì 9 review

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You will notice right away Defoe s journalistic approach rife with supporting statistics His powers as a writer and boldness of presentation are clearly beyond the pale As was the case with Robinson Crusoe he was not forthright with sources or veracity in the tale It is often impossible to tell where he obtained his facts and how much was mere inventionA Journal of the Plague year is a vast catalogue of deaths in all manners of protracted agonies distempers including plenty of murthering crazed wives fraught with frantic sualor He adds sensational moments of street nudity boiling unde The Danse Macabre from The Seventh Seal is no mystery to me today why it is that the name of an eighteenth century novelist Moll Flanders Robinson Crusoe is still nown okay not to everyone but to readers of literature He s just flat out a great writer This book which has been staring me in the face on my books to be read during the pandemic list for a few months is just exactly the Unmasking the Marquess (Hold Your Breath, kind of literary mountain I have historically liked to climb for reasons probably closer to masochism than anything else But as I said I liked Moll Flanders and Robinson Crusoe and have a bunch of pandemic books unread on my to read list And then I thought I might see how the Black Death was like or unlike Covid 19 Wenow so much now we are so advanced We respect science We Let Go know what to do to save ourselvesI just now learned that DeFoe took a few years to write this book in the form of a journal publishing it in 1722 It was based on the occasion of The Black Death or the Great Plagueilled anywhere from 70 100000 out of a total population of around 460000 This was 1665 and the plague largely ended in London a year later when the Great London Fire would also decimate the city The world population was estimated at about 550 million at the time and that plague they think may have Chatsfields Ultimate Acquisition killed as many as 25 million of the roughly 75 million living in Europe at the timeInow a few things about The Plague or I thought I did but DeFoe s novel that fictionalizes an HF as the narrator of his own journal set me straight on a lot of things It was supposedly written based in part on the journal his uncle Henry Foe Major Westhavens Unwilling Ward (Hh kept at the time fortified by his own deep research of actual events and statistics I ll call the book historical fiction but it reads at times like science counting infections and deaths in various wards and so on But I really did expect to find when I read it that wenow WAY today about plagues and pandemics than we did 250 years ago and have changed as a human race enough to truly counteract the disease Decide for yourselfEarly on there was great denial that it was anything to really anything to worry about Oh it s just like the flu maybe a little worse but it s so variable why worry about it at all As it got worse people of science as well as every day observers began to study it of course Early on they deduced that the disease seemed to be transferred through effluvium or bodily fluids especially through respiration getting breathed on by those infected and possibly perspiration There were lots of theories that included transmission by insects such as flies that stand today too At one point many thought animals were responsible which led to the needless illing of thousands of pets and farmyard animals But imagine this People of science began to advocate for the wearing of masks and other head coverings Nah can t work you say A waste of time And many people did ignore this in part bolstered by their courage that THEY would never get this diseasePeople tried as much as they could to live life as they did before ignoring doctors and health care professionals Especially after weeks in health care recommended lock down imagine this people in the late seventeenth century were told to stay home and avoid large crowds at all costs Ignorance Don t they value their freedom Who are these supposedly scientific tools of totalitarianism people just got sick of the lockdown and went back to living as they did pretending the Plague was over thus spiking infections and deaths considerably imagine But I mean how many times can you see reruns of Andy of Mayberry or the X Files Get back to the bar rightMany defended their not paying attention to the Plague because of their religious beliefs primarily re predestination as in If God wants to take me he will do that To fight against what God wants to do with my body is blasphemy Eat drink and be merryMany religious people used the occasion of the Plague to blame any number of types of sinners for what was happening as a judgement from God for their sins like the Old Testament God that brought The Flood down on sinners to wipe out almost the entire human populationAs the disease progressed it brought on any number of fake cures Plague Water for Sale Guaranteed to cure the Plague or your money back and charlatans and scams and price gouging This thermometer by my desk I got for 79 but could have been bought for around 12 six months ago Hoarding was typical among those wise enough to stay inside for great lengths of time but in general people were largely unprepared for the tragedy including the completely overwhelmed healthcare industryLots of rumors and guesses proliferated Get a boat You ll be safe Hey let s go on a cruise People are dying in London Get out of town and get out in the country or go abroad where there s no disease thus spreading it everywhere And this one early on was common Hoax But how to get around that as one strain of The Black Death featured boils and other sores You could see many who had the infection and then you could see the piles of bodies But the strain that illed you most uickly had almost no warning signs was largely asymptomatic It spread like wildfire because people thought I m not sick let me give Grandma a big hug Imagine thatThe widespread death and lockdown led to paranoia depression madness increases in crime including theft of supplies and food and murder And There was widespread and massive grief for all the death of course so despair was rampant Suicides were upThe poor were disproportionately affected as they had to work or ignored the advice of professionals for various reasonsAs soon as the numbers of infections and deaths started to go down things started to open up people started to party creating infections and deaths Nah Wouldn t happen today We re too smart for thatThere was no universal health system in fact there was almost no safety net at all though The Church and some government agencies helped a little with Charity But the health care system didn t have a cure a vaccine of course They were not prepared for it Imagine DeFoe writing this as a guide to future generations to warn them to be ready if it ever happened again Of course it will never happen again it s completely random We re completely safeThe economy was of course shot as businesses had to close everyone lost their jobs there was no money to buy anything Many heroic acts of charity were performed by health care and other leaders helping to avert greater losses Aren t you glad that we especially in America We are 1 now so much than we did 250 years ago It was a very ill time to be sick in My pandemic reading continues with this classic work about one of the worst diseases in European history bubonic plague Daniel Defoe wrote this account when the boundaries between fiction and non fiction were looser He freely mixes invention hearsay anecdote and real statistics in pursuit of a gripping yarn Defoe himself was only a young boy when the Great Plague struck London in 1664 6 but he writes the story in the person of a well to do curious if somewhat unimaginative burgher with the initials HF The result is one of literature s most enduring portraits of a city besieged by diseaseThough this account purports to be a journal it is not written as a series of dated entries but as one long scrawl What is Defoe s narrator is not the most orderly of writers and freuently repeats himself or gets sidetracked The book is thus rather slow and painful to read since it lacks any conspicuous structure to grasp onto but approaches a ind of bumbled stream of consciousness Even so there are so many memorable details and stories in this book that it is worth the time one spends with it The Great Plague carried off one fourth of London s population about 100000 souls and it was not even the worst outbreak of plague in the city The original wave of the Black Death in the middle ages was undoubtedly worse Still losing a uarter of a city s population is something that is difficult for most of us to even imagine And when you consider that the Great Fire of London was uick on the plague s heels you come to the conclusion that this was not the best time to be a LondonerWhat is most striking about reading this book now is how familiar it is The coronavirus is no bubonic plague but it seems our reactions to disease have not come a long way There are of course the scenes of desolation empty streets and mass graves The citizens anxiously read the statistics in the newspaper to see if the numbers are trending upwards or downwards And then there are the uacks and mountebanks selling sham remedies and magical elixirs to the desperate We also see the ways that disease affects the rich and the poor differently the rich could afford to flee the city while the poor faced disease and starvation And the economic conseuences were dreadful shutting up business leaving thousands unemployed and halting commerceMedical science was entirely useless against the disease Nowadays we can effectively treat the plague with antibiotics though the mortality rate is still 10% But at the time little could be done Infection with the bacillus causes swollen lymph nodes in the groin armpits and neck called buboes and it was believed that the swellings had to be punctured and drained This likely did harm than good and in practice the plague doctors only useful purpose was to How to Disappear keep records of the deaduite interesting to observe were the antiue forms of social distancing a term that of course did not exist that the Londoners practiced As now people tried to avoid going out of their homes as much as possible and if they did go out they tried toeep a distance from others and to avoid touching anything Defoe describes people picking up their own meat at the butcher s and dropping their money into a pan of vinegar to disinfect it There was also state mandated uarantining as any house with an infection got shut up meaning the inhabitants could not leave Ironically though these measures would have been wise had the disease been viral they made little sense for a disease communicated by rat fleas Defoe does mention by the way that the people put out rat poison which probably helped than all of the distancing One commonality is that the disease outlasted people s patience and prudence As soon as an abatement was observed in the weekly deaths citizens rushed out to embrace each other and resume norm. A Journal of the Plague Year by Daniel Defoe This novel is an account of one man's experiences of the year 1665 in which the Great Plague or the bubonic plague struck the city of London The book is told somewhat chronologically though without sections or chapter headings Presented as an eyewitness account of the events at the time it was written in the years just prior to the book's first publication in March 1722 Defoe was only five years old in 1665 and the book itself was published under the initials H F and is probably based on the journals of Defoe's uncle Henry Foe It was about the beginning of September 1664 that I among the rest of my neighbours heard in ordinary discourse that the plague was returned again in Holland; for it had been very violent there and particularly at Amsterdam and Rotterdam in the year 1663 whith.

Al life despite the warning of the town s physicians Not much has changed after all So while not exactly pleasant to read A Journal of the Plague Year is at least humbling for the contemporary reader as it reminds us that perhaps we have not come so far as we thought And it is also a timely reminder that far from a novel and unpredictable event the current crisis is one of many plagues that we have weathered in our time on this perilous globe Because writing is an expression of human character what is true of one s character is true of one s writing as well A person s strengths and weaknesses are often two sides of the same coin the sympathetic character is often permissive the assertive unreasonable the ardent rash and the same thing can be said of an author s beauties and his faults A brief study of Daniel Defoe s book on the London plague of 1665 1666 illustrates this principlePerhaps the most impressive thing about A Journal of the Plague Year is that it is an extraordinarily convincing account narrated by the voice of a mature solid citizen thoroughly respectable and reliable who has personally witnessed the extraordinary and often horrific incidents he describes Defoe however although did he live in London at the time was born in 1660 and was therefore only five years old when the Hand of Death fell upon the city of LondonDefoe creates a convincing persona by making his narrator a stolid burgher who fears his God respects his fellow Londoners and admires his city an unimaginative man who above all reverences reliable testimony and verifiable facts Plague Year is crammed with rolls of the dead and other helpful lists as well as page upon page of city regulations governing the duties of citizens the conduct of the inspectors etc Although there are many vivid glimpses of life during plague crazed sufferers expiring in the streets healthy families shut up in their houses by decree diseased individuals defying city orders open pits waiting for wagons stacked high with the dead these scenes are often obscured by heaps of accumulated detail piles of haphazardly organized materials The book although impressive is inelegant its organizational principles unclear it appears to be the work of a literate layman not a professional writer Paradoxically it is precisely this impression of amateurishness that makes the voice and therefore the work itself so powerful and convincing a performanceAs with Robinson Crusoe so it is with A Journal of the Plague Year I can never decide whether Defoe is merely an unsophisticated novelist addicted to lists and repetitive details or whether like the poet satirists of his own 18th Century he is a master at constructing personae that convince the reader with their sincerity and authorityIs the hobbling inartful appearance of Plague Year a strength or is it a weakness I for one think it s a toss up Two sides of the same coin Reprinted from the Chicago Center for Literature and Photography cclapcentercom I am the original author of this essay as well as the owner of CCLaP it is not being reprinted illegallyThe CCLaP 100 In which I read for the first time a hundred so called classics then write reports on whether or not they deserve the labelEssay 62 A Journal of the Plague Year 1722 by Daniel Defoe The story in a nutshellAlthough not actually written until sixty years later but on that in a bit Daniel Defoe s 1722 A Journal of the Plague Year is pretty much what it sounds like a purportedly true account of London s Great Plague of 1665 the last outbreak of the bubonic plague the city would ever see supposedly written by an average middle classer who decided to wait things out instead of fleeing to the countryside like so many others As such then the book doesn t really have a three act plot per se but is a rambling collection of observations anecdotes and actual hard data from an examination of the religious fervor that overtook the city during the worst months to a detailed look at how home uarantines actually worked to second hand accounts of the eual amount of trouble awaiting poor peasants who tried living illegally in the rural wilds of England that year to horror stories of people literally bursting into goo in the middle of public streets or of cemetery workers who would literally die while on their way to mass graves with a cart full of corpses leaving the city full of wandering teams of horses dragging dead bodies randomly to and fro Although almost 300 years old by now be warned that this is still not for the faint of heart The argument for it being a classicThe case for this being a classic is a pretty simple one it is arguably the very first historical novel in human history and in fact it was the centuries of passionate debate about whether this should be considered fact or fiction that even led to the term in the first place and to this genre eventually becoming as popular as it now is For example although not proven it s widely believed that our narrator HF is based on Defoe s relative Henry Foe who actually was a young adult craftsman in London during the 65 plague and who may or may not have left a detailed journal where Defoe culled many of these stories and for another example Defoe even went to the trouble of including slang terms and intentional misspellings from the 1660s that had fallen out of favor by the 1720s On top of this though say its fans the book s simply one freaky nightmare of a read a surprisingly plain spoken and readable book befitting the Enlightenment times when it was actually written that has had an enormous impact on not only historical novels but the horror genre and post apocalyptic fiction and that has directly influenced everyone from Albert Camus to Cormac McCarthy to even Monty Python and the Holy Grail That movie s famous line Bring out yer dead was lifted directly from this book The argument againstThere seems to be two main arguments against The Plague Year being a classic although admittedly both of them weak ones first that as a mere prototype of a genre that didn t acuire its main tropes until a century later the book s digressive nature and outdated language is hard to read and follow and second that although this book may be good enough on its own it s Defoe s much famous and important Robinson Crusoe that should actually be considered the indisputable classic in that that s the book widely considered to be the very first three act novel in the history of the English language My verdictAs I ve said in this essay series before I think to truly enjoy books that are this old it s important to understand the context in which they were written and to Act Like You Know know whatinds of things were influencing both the author himself and the original audience he was writing for and so in the case of The Plague Year understanding this context makes the book much fascinating than simply its writing uality may make it seem and is crucial for understanding why I found this such a surprisingly fantastic read Because you see Defoe was not only one of the first novelists in British history a format he came to A Guide to Americas Sex Laws know and love during his travels in southern Europe as a businessman in the late 1600s but he chose to use this format specifically to comment on the hottest trendiest issues of the day making him essentially the Michael Crichton of the Enlightenment and it just so happens that just a year before this was written the French city of Marseilles went through a major new outbreak of the bubonic plague which inspired the British public and its newfound journalism industry to obsessively look back at their own plague of 56 years previous and to examine all the ways that their society had profoundly changed since thenNow combine this with the Great London Fire just one year after this 1665 plague a one twonockout to the city that left it largely empty of people and burned to the ground and was the very thing that transformed it in those years into the post Medieval modern infrastructure we now Agewise know when you take all these things into consideration then The Plague Year suddenly becomes not just a horror story and important precedent in the development of historical fiction but indeed serves as no less than a grand epic look at the transformation of Britain in this 60 year period from the last vestiges of the Middle Ages to the Age of Science of Defoe s own times I mean certainly a lot of this book suddenly starts making a lot sense when you assume that this was Defoe s actual goal he goes on and on in it for example about the shamefully superstitious way that 1600s Londoners actually reacted to this plague a common criticism among Enlightenment citizens about the generation before them and also takes the trouble to point out all the faulty ways that people medically tried to deal with this plague outdated hokum that had been disproven by the modern doctors of Defoe s own time and one of the many sneakily brilliant things that Defoe gets away with by writing this in reality half a century after the events that it describesI mean don t get me wrong the book just by itself is pretty great on its own it s unusually easy to read compared to books written in the same time period and really does have aind of slasher flick mentality that makes it still so engaging even three centuries later But I have to admit what makes it truly delightful is to imagine yourself as an average Enlightenment intellectual in the early 1700s yourself to picture the ways that science and reason and philosophy were utterly transforming society at the time literally wresting power away from the mysticism fear and superstition that had mostly driven British life up to that point because let s never forget it actually took several additional centuries for the principles of the Renaissance to truly catch on in Britain after it first became popular in southern Europe in the late 1400s and then to imagine reading The Plague Year within such a context the point not really to talk about plagues at all but rather to examine all the ways that British society had changed in the 60 years since and to thank God that modern biological science was rapidly bringing an end to such plagues in the first place When read in this spirit it makes The Plague Year one of the most surprisingly great books in the entirety of this essay series so far and it comes strongly recommended to those who can maintain this attitude themselvesIs it a classic YesAnd don t forget that the first 33 essays in this series are now available in book form One of the problems with reviewing the earliest authors of fiction is that they were writing at a time before the rules had In 1664 Borif De Pfeffel Jonffon was the Mayor of London He was widely popular with his flowing blonde wig and extravagant ruff Having invented the highly successful sport of peacock wiff waff where live cocks were thwacked across a bronze table with scimitars then skinned and served whole to the victors his electoral success was secured In spite of his various mistresses sever. Er they say it was brought some said from Italy others from the Levant among some goods which were brought home by their Turkey fleet; others said it was brought from Candia; others from Cyprus It mattered not from whence it came; but all agreed it was come into Holland again We had no such thing as printed newspapers in those days to spread rumours and reports of things and to improve them by the invention of men as I have lived to see practised since But such things as these were gathered from the letters of merchants and others who corresponded abroad and from them was handed about by word of mouth only; so that things did not spread instantly over the whole nation as they do now But it seems that the Government had a true account of it and several councils were held about ways to prevent its coming over; but all was ept

Daniel Defoe 16591661 1731 was an English writer journalist and spy who gained enduring fame for his novel Robinson Crusoe Defoe is notable for being one of the earliest practitioners of the novel and helped popularize the genre in Britain In some texts he is even referred to as one of the founders if not the founder of the English novel A prolific and versatile writer he wrote m